At one point the Sand Island residents felt it would be a good thing for them to take their story directly to tourists at Waikiki. Leaflets were handed out in the Kuhio Beach vicinity and about a dozen or so residents chatted with visitors on the beach. The reception they received was surprisingly supportive but came too late to prevent the destruction of the Sand Island community. However, thanks to the residents of Sand Island, the Ceded Lands "Genie" was out of the bottle. Ever since this time, the Ceded Lands issue is being fought over in the courts.





Since the early 1970's, various people, including the burgeoning communities of Native-Hawaiians seeking self-determination, stepped forward to express opposition to social/political agendas being pushed by the State and "Moneyed interests" in and out of Hawai'i. These "moneyed interests" were focused on reaping maximum profits from tourist/resort/condominium development that began to accelerate after Statehood in 1959.

Most of the struggles centered on who was going to own and control land and its use. Many developments displaced low-income residents who were living in rented homes and apartments by forcing them to move. This occurred throughout the island of Oahu: in Kalama Valley, Ota Camp, Chinatown, Waiahole/Waikane, Niumalu/Nawiliwili on Kaua'i, Coconut Grove, Waimanalo, Ewa, Sand Island, Mokauea Island, Heeia/Heeia Kea, and Kahana Valley.

more photographs by Ed Greevy